Innate Lymphoid Cells
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were discovered about a decade ago and are the most recently identified population of immune cells that belong to the lymphoid lineage. They represent a distinct arm of the innate immune system that can directly communicate with a wide variety of haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic cells to mediate host defence, inflammation and metabolic homeostasis in multiple tissues.
Unlike adaptive T and B lymphocytes, they lack pattern-recognition receptors and somatically rearranged antigen receptors and therefore cannot respond to pathogenic insult in an antigen-specific manner. They are ubiquitously distributed throughout the body and enriched at mucosal and barrier surfaces, serving as the first line of defense against microorganisms.
Although present in relatively low numbers, the selective distribution of ILCs within tissues seems to confer a remarkable ability to regulate multiple physiological processes throughout the body.
Understanding the dysregulation of ILCs in the context of infectious, metabolic, and chronic inflammatory conditions in humans might provide therapeutic solutions in the treatment of diverse autoimmune inflammatory diseases and cancers.
ILC’s are divided into 3 main Groups: ILC 1, ILC2 and ILC3. Modulating the activity of these cells is the focus of Innate Lymphoid Cell Therapeutics (ILC) Ltd.
Key Cells, Cytokine and Chemokines