Public awareness of viruses and their impact on humanity has never been higher than right now, and likewise the demand for new, effective treatments. Virology focuses on all of the following aspects of viruses: their structure, classification and evolution, their ways to infect and exploit host cells for reproduction, their interaction with host organism physiology and immunity, the diseases they cause, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their use in research and therapy.
ILC Therapeutic’s interest in virology has concentrated on the use of semi-synthetic Type 1 Interferons for the treatment of the pandemic viruses (e.g. Influenza, SARS CoV 1,2). This has been expanded to include the respiratory viruses as the many faceted anti-viral mechanisms invoked by the Interferons
has evolved over 250 million years to protect us from virtually any viral infection.
Atopic dermatitis (AD)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin. It affects around 15-20% of children and 1-3% of adults. Almost 19% of children do not respond to current treatments. According to WHO the Quality of Life (QoL) impacts on children with Atopic Dermatitis are second only to Cerebral Palsy amongst childhood disorders.
Atopic Dermatitis happens when the body loses control over the Innate Immune System, an ancient immune mechanism design to protect our skin from bacterial and parasitic attacks.
Basophils, Eosinophils & ILC 2 Effects
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin affecting about 1-5% of the world over 100 million people. Anyone can get Psoriasis and tends to appear between the ages of 15 and 35.Psoriasis causes patches of thick red sore skin with silvery scales that itch or feel sore. It can be mild and localised to the hands or severe and cover large areas of the body.
There is currently no cure for Psoriasis but treatments can slow down the growth of skin cells or relieve pain, itching and discomfort. Biological drugs have been introduced in recent years. These drugs have been shown to have “Drug Survival Times” of 30 months to 60 months in patients before they lose efficacy.
Neutrophil & ILC3 Effects
ILC Therapeutics is developing the first topical biologic for the treatment of psoriasis to address the unmet clinical need for 80% of sufferers;
Its pre-clinical research has demonstrated that the molecule ILCT-1001 targets and inhibits the clinically-validated IL-17A,F and TNF-α pathways, with further suppressive effects on other key cytokines/chemokines implicated in psoriasis
In-vitro studies show that ILCT-1001 acts directly on human keratinocytes (skin cells) at low concentrations to suppress production of the chemokines responsible for the skin damage – this makes this molecule ideal for use as a topical agent
Despite being a biologic, its low molecular weight (17 kilodaltons) allows the molecule to penetrate the dermis and permit a therapeutic effect from the surface through to sub-dermal
ILCT-1001 is a recombinant molecule which demonstrates measurable effects at very low concentrations. As it is derived from a natural molecule, it is therefore likely to be safe and well tolerated
In-vitro toxicology assays support this safety assertion: it has displayed no cytotoxicity up to the highest concentrations (5x106 IU/ml)
“Immuno-oncology is an emerging field that has revolutionized cancer treatment. Most immunomodulatory strategies focus on enhancing T cell responses, but there has been a recent surge of interest in harnessing the relatively underexplored natural killer (NK) cell compartment for therapeutic interventions. NK cells show cytotoxic activity against diverse tumour cell types, and some of the clinical approaches originally developed to increase T cell cytotoxicity may also activate NK cells. Moreover, increasing numbers of studies have identified novel methods for increasing NK cell anti-tumour immunity and expanding NK cell populations ex vivo, thereby paving the way for a new generation of anticancer immunotherapies. The role of other innate lymphoid cells (group 1 innate lymphoid cell (ILC1), ILC2 and ILC3 subsets) in tumours is also being actively explored.”
Natural killer cells and other innate lymphoid cells in cancer. Nature Reviews Immunology volume 18, pages671–688 (2018)
NK and ILC 1 Effects
Natural Killer Cells and ILC 1 cells play a pivotal role in attacking cancer cells. Our lead peptides have been shown to enhance the ability of NK cells to kill target cells and produce IFNγ. They also promote the accumulation and survival of proliferating NK cells by the induction of IL-15. They also activate the production of other cytokines by NK cells.